Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is responsible for the most cancer deaths throughout the world. Nearly 174,000 new cases of lung cancer are diagnosed in the U.S. each year. The most common cause of lung cancer is cigarette smoking, but some lung cancer patients have never smoked. Exposure to asbestos, radon gas and air pollution and genetic predisposition are other causes of the disease. Lung cancer rates are declining in some countries as the numbers of cigarette smokers decline. Treatment for lung cancer can include surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation.

About the Cancer Center

Mass General Cancer Center at Emerson Hospital – Bethke offers top-notch, patient-oriented cancer care in a community setting: the expertise of highly skilled oncology specialists, the latest technology, the ease of receiving treatment in the community and easy access to your health care team.


The best way to prevent lung cancer is to avoid smoking and breathing in second-hand smoke. If you smoke, quit. While the risk for former smokers remains elevated when compared to a nonsmoker, it falls each year. Ten years after quitting, a former smoker’s risk of lung cancer is reduced 30–50 percent. About 15 years after quitting, a smoker’s risk of lung cancer begins to approach that of non-smokers. Speak with your physician about strategies that may help you quit smoking. A number of programs can support smokers who want to quit:

Low-Dose CT Lung Cancer Screening Program

Emerson Hospital offers low-dose CT screening (LDCT) to help identify lung cancer using the minimum amount of radiation. Medicare and many private insurers now cover the cost of an annual LDCT, but you must meet the following criteria:

  • Are between the ages of 50-77 years old and currently smoke or have quit within the last 15 years
  • Have no symptoms of lung cancer
  • Smoked the equivalent of at least 20 pack-years (one pack-year = smoking one pack per day for one year; 1 pack = 20 cigarettes)
  • Have a written order from a physician or qualified health care practitioner

If you meet the criteria, please contact your primary care physician to schedule a counseling visit. LDCT lung screenings can take place at Emerson Hospital in Concord or at the Westford Health Center. To make a screening appointment or for more information, please call 978-287-3003.


If symptoms suggest possible lung cancer, a number of tests may be performed to confirm the diagnosis. These include:
  • Chest X-ray
  • Pulmonary function test
  • CT scan
  • MRI
  • Lung biopsy
  • Sputum tests
  • Bronchoscopy

Other Diagnostic Tools

If cancer is diagnosed, sophisticated methods of imaging can reduce the need for exploratory surgery and help cancer specialists develop individualized treatment plans for patients.

The cancer center offers advanced diagnostic imaging services, including:
  • Bone scans
  • Computer-assisted tomography (CT)
  • Fine needle aspiration
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Image-guided biopsies
  • Ultrasound
  • Specific tumor-seeking scans
  • PET/CT (positron emission tomography/computer-assisted tomography)

Imaging Accreditations

Emerson Hospital’s imaging services are:
  • Accredited by the American College of Radiology
  • Recognized by the National Alliance of Breast Cancer Organizations
  • Approved and recommended by the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute
  • Licensed by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and the Food and Drug Administration
  • Accredited by the American College of Radiology, Radiation Control Program (Mass Department of Public Health)
  • Accredited by the American College of Radiology for breast sonography
  • Recognized as a Designated Lung Cancer Screening Center by the American College of Radiology

Treatment at the Cancer Center: Complete, convenient and personalized

Emerson Hospital’s philosophy of care is to build a multidisciplinary team around the patient — one that includes the primary care physician, diagnostic specialists, cancer specialists and oncology certified nursing staff. Care is well-coordinated among team members, who meet throughout the week to discuss diagnosis and treatment planning for specific patients. Routinely, experts from the area’s leading institutions meet with oncologists to discuss specific patient cases. The extended team at Emerson includes the full spectrum of support services, including social workers, nutritionists, physical therapists, home care and pain management specialists and integrative therapy practitioners. At the cancer center, patients have easy access to their physicians and other providers during and after treatment, all in the comfort of a community setting.

Surgical Care

Surgery often plays a vital role in cancer diagnosis and treatment. The surgeons at Emerson’s Cancer Center have extensive experience treating lung cancer. From biopsies to cancer surgery, Emerson’s surgeons are committed to performing the most minimally invasive procedures possible.

Medical Oncology

Emerson’s experienced medical oncologists specialize in the medical treatment of lung cancer. They help guide the diagnosis, treatment plan and overall care for patients. Medical oncologists prescribe chemotherapy and/or biotherapy for patients who require it. The cancer center’s medical oncologists have close working relationships with colleagues at Mass General Cancer Center in Boston. Emerson patients have access to the latest treatments available through cancer clinical trials.


Surgeons work closely with Emerson’s expert anesthesiologists, who provide clinical anesthesia services for patients. Available at the hospital 24 hours a day, anesthesiologists also consult on pain management for those with chronic pain.

Chemotherapy and Infusion Services

Chemotherapy is an important part of many cancer treatment plans. Advances in chemotherapy treatment are making this therapy more precise and targeted. The cancer center’s outpatient chemotherapy infusion suite offers the most advanced therapy in a new, state-of-the-art facility staffed by medical oncologists and specially trained oncology nurses. In addition, patients admitted to Emerson Hospital have access to the Naka Infusion Center, which provides a suite dedicated to infusion therapies designed with patient safety, comfort and privacy in mind. Family members or friends are welcome to accompany patients during treatment.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy is an invaluable cancer-fighting therapy and is usually given once a day over many weeks, so convenience and ease-of-access to the treatment facility is critical. The Massachusetts General Hospital Department of Radiation Oncology at Emerson Hospital provides all of this. The joint program includes the most up-to-date and highly accurate treatment and planning technologies available at the major downtown hospitals in one convenient location — at the cancer center in Concord, Mass. Recent advances in radiation treatment which are available to Emerson patients include:
  • 3-D Conformal Radiation Therapy: CT-scan guided treatment planning, which enables the physicians to pinpoint the precise tumor location using an on-site CT scan.
  • Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) so the physicians and physicists can “sculpt” radiation beams around the tumor — thus avoiding unnecessary radiation to normal tissues and structures.
  • Image-Guided Radiation Therapy: Imaging tools within the linear accelerator (treatment machine) that enable precise re-positioning of the patient from one treatment session to the next.


Today, cancer treatment is tailored to each patient’s tumor. Pathologists play an important role in diagnosing cancer and identifying attributes about each tumor that help oncologists design the most effective treatment plan. Emerson’s pathologists have access to the most cutting-edge molecular tests available to aid in accurate diagnosis.

Genetic Testing and Counseling

Several types of cancer are known to have a genetic component. Emerson provides genetic screening and counseling for patients who want to know their cancer risks.

The ability to perform genetic testing to determine if a patient carries a known cancer gene is a significant breakthrough in cancer management. Patients at genetic risk for cancer can take steps to prevent cancers from occurring, or increase screenings to make sure they are found at the earliest, most treatable stages. Understanding the genetic causes of cancer is also leading to the development of customized, targeted cancer therapies. As more cancer genes are identified, more patients will benefit. Genetic testing also makes it possible to analyze a tumor’s DNA in order to determine whether or not a patient is at high or low risk for recurrence. Patients at low risk for recurrence may not require chemotherapy.

The goal of cancer genetics counseling is to assist patients who wish to understand the role genetics plays in their cancer diagnosis, as well as the potential risk for family members. For more information, please call 978-287-3436.

Clinical Trials

Over the past 15 years, clinical trials have been an important part of the comprehensive cancer program at the cancer center. The decision to take part in a clinical trial is very personal. You should talk to your physician and consider the risks and benefits of a study before agreeing to participate.

Integrative Therapies

Integrative therapies, also known as complementary therapies, can be very effective in addressing nausea, pain and fatigue and in bolstering the immune system. Emerson patients who are interested in combining acupuncture, yoga, reiki, herbs or other integrative therapies with their cancer treatment are encouraged to speak with their physician, who can make a referral, including to a certified, on-site acupuncturist.

Support Services and Groups

The Clough Family Center for Rehabilitative and Sports Therapies helps patients with physical, occupational and speech therapy needs during and after treatment. Emerson’s home care department has specialists who assist with support services that may be needed in the home, and care coordination if a hospice referral is desired. Emerson’s social work department provide specialists who help to coordinate and integrate support services at any time from initial diagnosis, through treatment and after. Practitioners from all of the support services work collaboratively with our medical oncology teams to provide the best of care. The Bethke Cancer Center is dedicated to its patients and continues to provide care and support after completion of active treatment through survivorship programs.

A monthly cancer support group meets at Emerson Hospital and is open to all men and women with any diagnosis of cancer. For more information, call Emerson’s social work department at 978-287-3189. Cancer support groups are also offered through an affiliation with the Virginia Thurston Healing Garden in Harvard, Mass. Please call 978-456-3532 for more information.

Emerson also offers a wide range of community health and wellness programs and classes that can help participants learn about cancer prevention and early diagnosis strategies or help those with cancer, their caregivers or family manage the stress associated with the illness. A variety of stress reduction programs use approaches including mindfulness training, yoga and meditation, tai chi, reiki and qigong. Another program teaches those who have completed cancer treatment nutrition strategies for preventing cancer recurrence. 

Emerson’s Lund Community Health Library offers information that can help individuals understand and cope with the diagnosis of a medical condition and learn about the latest treatment methods.


The Mass General Cancer Center was created to bring outstanding cancer specialists and facilities to the communities served by Emerson Hospital. The center provides advanced, quality treatment and technology with compassion and care. They are committed to answer questions and discuss treatment options openly and honestly; and to provide support services. Treatment is based on a multidisciplinary approach to cancer care that emphasizes the coordination of many disciplines and services to form an organized team of professionals and support staff willing to go the distance for each individual patient and family.


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